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Saturday, 21 June 2014

Old Cairo::Ancient City in Egypt

Old Cairo (Egyptian Arabic: Masr el Adīma) is a part of Cairo, Egypt, that contains the remnants of those cities which were capitals before Cairo, such as Fustat, as well as some other elements from the city's varied history. For example, it encompasses Coptic Cairo and its many old churches and ruins of Roman fortifications. Modern tourists visit locations such as the Coptic Museum, the Babylon Fortress, the Hanging Church and other Coptic churches, the Ben Ezra Synagogue and the Mosque of 'Amr ibn al-'As. Fort Babylon is a Roman fortress around which many of the Egyptian Christians' oldest churches were built.

Convent of Saint George in Coptic Cairo, a famous section of the Old City


Count Gabriel Habib Sakakini Pasha (1841–1923), who had become a household name in his time, built a palace and a church in the Sakakini area in 1897[1] and established the Roman Catholic Cemetery in Old Cairo.



 Cairo, channel between Rhoda Island and Old Cairo, Egypt

Medieval history
During the latter half of the 15th century, two final major transformations took place in Cairo: the port of Bulaq, and a district called al-Azbakiyyah in the northwest section of the city. The perimeters of the city had been unchanged for the past 300 years according to the map done by the French expedition in 1798 AD. With the Baybars’s conquest of Cyprus in 1428, Bulaq became the major port of Cairo. By the end of the 15th century, Bulaq was even able to take over the role as the major commercial port from misr al-Qadima (Old Cairo).

Look below for Captures of old Cairo....





Wednesday, 18 June 2014

Ghadames::Ancient City in Libya

Ghadames or Ghadamis /ɡəˈdæmɨs/ (Arabic: غدامس‎, Libyan vernacular: ġdāməs) is an oasis town in the Nalut District of the Tripolitania region in northwestern Libya.

Geography
Ghadames lies roughly 462 kilometres (287 mi) to the southwest of Tripoli, near the borders with Algeria and Tunisia. Ghadames borders Illizi Province, Algeria and Tataouine Governorate, Tunisia.
The oasis has a population of around 10,000, mainly Berbers. The old part of the town, which is surrounded by a city wall, has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage site. Each of the seven clans that used to live in this part of the town had its own district, of which each had a public place where festivals could be held.

History
 
Ancient eras
The first records about Ghadames date from the Roman period, when the settlement was known as Cydamus. In the 1st century BC the Roman proconsul Lucius Cornelius Balbus invaded Cydamus during the reign of emperor Augustus.[3] A permanent Roman garrison was established during the reign of Septimius Severus, and the emperor may have visited the settlement around AD 202.[4] However, the Romans withdrew from the area a few decades later during the Crisis of the Third Century.

 
 Houses in Ghadames are made of mud, lime, and palm tree trunks with covered alleyways between them to offer good shelter against summer heat.

 During the 6th century, a Bishop lived in the oasis, after the population had been converted to Christianity by Byzantine missionaries.
During the 7th century, Ghadames was ruled by the Muslim Arabs. The population quickly converted to Islam and Ghadames played an important role as base for the Trans-Saharan trade until the 19th century.
 
Etymology
The etymology of the name Ghadames is very closely linked with its history. It is believed that the name Ghadames is originally connected to the name of the ancient Berber tribe of Tidamensi, a tribe from Fezzan. It is also believed that the name Tidamensi was corrupted by the invading Romans to form the name Cydamus, which in turn gave way to the name Ghadames.
The alternative theory for the name, as espoused by the local populace (i.e. a popular etymology), is that the oasis of Ghadames derives from the Arabic words for lunch ("Ghada") and yesterday ("ams"). The words are contracted to form an approximation of "lunch yesterday." By lore, a group that had camped near the oasis left materials from the previous day's campfire cookout. When the steward tasked to retrieve the materials returned to the site, the hoof of his horse broke through to the water of the oasis that now lies at the center of the town. Whether or not this legend is true, the oasis was the reason the town appeared and has remained in this most remote region of the desert.
 
20th—21st centuries
In the 1970s, the government built new houses outside of the old part of the town. However, many inhabitants return to the old part of the town during the summer, as its architecture provides better protection against the heat.
During the 2011 Libyan civil war, National Transitional Council forces entered the town on 30 August 2011, which had been under siege by NTC forces since the beginning of the conflict.

Old Town of Ghadames

The old town, inscribed in 1986 as a UNESCO World Heritage site, was de-populated of its inhabitants throughout the 1990s, leaving the old buildings at risk of collapse due to a lack of maintenance.


 Ghadames Old Town Inside of small dwelling

Libya Ghadames Old Town Rooftop View

 Libya Ghadames Old Town Spring Water Pool

 Libya Ghadames Old Town Wall Entrance

Libya Ghadames Old Town Fruit Trees

View over the rooftops of the old town of Ghadames


 Old Town of Ghadamès

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