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Wednesday, 25 February 2015

Aventicum - Tour of Ancient world


Name:    Aventicum
Continent:    EUROPE
Alt Name:     -
Country:    Switzerland
Period:    Ancient Rome
Sub-Region:    Western Europe
Date:    0AD - 99AD
City/Town:    Avenches
Figure:     -

Aventicum history
Aventicum is an impressive ancient Roman site in Switzerland which was the thriving capital of the Helvetians.
It is unclear as to exactly when Aventicum was founded, but it reached its peak between the 1st century BC and 5th century AD, during its time as capital of the region under Roman rule. At this point, it was home to some 20,000 inhabitants. Aventicum also became a colony of Rome or "colonia", a prestigious accolade, in around 71AD.
The sites which can now be seen at the archaeological site of Aventicum are very well preserved and include a 2nd century amphitheatre which would have seated 16,000, some of the original city walls with a surviving tower (originally one of 73), a set of thermal baths and holy sites including a sanctuary and some temples.
Now located in the area known as Avenches, Aventicum offers visitors plenty of original sites to see. There is also a museum within the amphitheatre tower which explores the history of Aventicum and with finds from the site itself including daily tools, mosaics, sculptures and various items from the city’s time under the Romans.

 Switzerland during the Roman era, showing Aventicum and the Helvetii region

 Carved limestone objects from Aventicum

 Die Helvetier zwingen die Römer unter dem Joch hindurch (The Helvetians force the Romans to pass under the yoke). Romantic painting by Charles Gleyre (19th century) celebrating the Helvetian victory over the Romans at Agen (107 BC) under Divico’s command.

 Entering the arena floor from the monumental east entrance

 The amphitheatre could hold up to 16,000 people

 The Theatre of Aventicum with the modern town of Avenches in the background

 Curved shape of the seating and one vomitoria on the upper left

 Cigognier Temple pillars

 Roman city wall and east gate

 Thermes en Perruet (Baths at the Forum)


Aventicum was the largest town and capital of Roman Switzerland (Helvetia or Civitas Helvetiorum). Its remains are beside the modern town of Avenches.
The city was probably created ex nihilo in the early 1st century AD, as the capital of the recently conquered territory of the Helvetii, across the road that connected Italy to Britain, built under Claudius. Under the rule of Emperor Vespasian, who grew up there, Aventicum was raised to the status of a colonia in 72 AD, whereupon it entered its golden age. The town wall was 5.6 km (3.5 mi) long.
In the Christian era Aventicum was the seat of a bishopric. The most famous of its bishops was Marius Aventicensis, whose terse chronicle, spanning the years 455 to 581, is one of the few sources for the 6th-century Burgundians. Shortly after the Council of Macon, 585, Marius removed the see from Aventicum, which was rapidly declining, to Lausanne.


Monday, 23 February 2015

Avdat - Tour of Ancient world

Name:    Avdat
Continent:    MIDDLE-EAST
Alt Name:    Ovdat
Country:    Israel
Period:    Nabataean Kingdom
Sub-Region:    -
Date:    100BC - 1BC
City/Town:    Sde Boker
Figure:     -
Resorts:    Sde Boker, Mitspe Ramon, 



Avdat history
Avdat or “Ovdat” is an archaeological site in Israel which houses the pretty remains of an ancient Nabatean city later inhabited by the Romans, the Byzantines and the Arabs. It initially formed part of the trading route known as the Incense Route which ran from the Mediterranean to south Arabia and which peaked from the 3rd to the 2nd centuries BC. The main commodities along this route were frankincense, myrrh and spices.
Avdat prospered under the Nabateans from 30 BC to 9 BC, during the reign of King Aretas IV, but needed to be rebuilt after it was destroyed by Arab tribes in the late first century BC. This was carried out under Nabatean King Rabbel. However, in 106 AD, during Rabbel’s reign, Avdat was captured by the Romans. In the seventh century it was taken by the Arabs.
In addition to well-preserved fortifications, the ruins at Avdat include a caravanserai, homes, a Roman military camp, fourth century churches, a street and a bathhouse. Many of the ruins are Roman, but the Nabatean influence can still be seen, including the ruin of a temple.
Today, Avdat is a UNESCO World Heritage site, as one of four Desert Cities of the Incense Route.

 Overview of Avdat

 Temple of Oboda

 Avdat earthquake damage

Temple Layout

Before the end of the 1st century BCE a temple platform (the acropolis) was created along the western edge of the plateau. Recent excavations have shown that the town continued to be inhabited by the Nabataeans continuously from this period until its destruction by earthquake in the early 7th century CE. Sometime towards the end of the 1st century BCE the Nabataeans began using a new route between the site of Moyat Awad in the Arabah valley and Avdat by way of Makhtesh Ramon. Nabataean or Roman Nabataean sites have been found and excavated at Moyat Awad (mistakenly identified as Moa of the 6th century CE Madeba Map), Qatzra, Har Masa, Mezad Nekarot, Sha'ar Ramon (Khan Saharonim), Mezad Ma'ale Mahmal and Grafon.
Avdat continued to prosper as a major station along the Petra-Gaza road after the Roman annexation of Nabataea in 106 CE. Avdat, like other towns in the central Negev highlands, adjusted to the cessation of international trade through the region in the early to mid 3rd century by adopting agriculture, and particularly the production of wine, as its means of subsistence. Numerous terraced farms and water channels were built throughout the region in order to collect enough run-off from winter rains to support agriculture in the hyper arid zone of southern Israel. At least five wine presses dated to the Byzantine period have been found at the site.
In the late 3rd or early 4th century (probably during the reign of Diocletian) the Roman army constructed an army camp measuring 100 x 100 m. on the northern side of the plateau. Elsewhere at the site, an inscription was found in the ruins of a tower describing the date (293/294 CE) and the fact that one of the builders hailed from Petra. Around this time a bath house was constructed on the plain below the site. The bath house was supplied with water by way of a well, tunneled 70 meters through bedrock. Sites along the Petra-Gaza road were apparently used by the Roman army in the 4th and 5th centuries when the road continued to function as an artery between Petra and the Nabataean Negev settlements. Pottery and coins from the late 3rd to the early 5th century have been found at Mezad Ma'ale Mahmal, Shar Ramon and Har Masa and Roman milestones line part of the road between Avdat and Shar Ramon. A fort with four corner towers was constructed on the ruins of early Nabataean structures north of Avdat at Horvat Ma'agora. Milestones have been found on along the Petra Gaza road north at Avdat between Avdat and Horvat Ma'agora and further up the road towards Halutza (Elusa).
The early town was heavily damaged by a major (probably local) earthquake, sometime in the early 5th century CE. In the ruins of this destruction a Nabataean inscription, in black ink on plaster, was found bearing a blessing of the Nabataean god, Dushara. The inscription was written by the plasterer, one Ben-Gadya. This is the latest Nabataean inscription ever found in Israel.
Avdat earthquake damage
A wall was built around the later town, including a large area of man-made caves, some of which were partially inhabited in the Byzantine period. Under Byzantine rule, in 5th and 6th century, a citadel and a monastery with two churches were built on the acropolis of Avdat. Saint Theodore's Church is the most interesting Byzantine relic in Avdat. Marble tombstones inserted in the floor are covered with Greek inscriptions. St. Theodore was a Greek martyr of the 4th century. The Monastery stands next to the church and nearby a lintel is carved with lions and it marks the entrance to the castle.

Friday, 20 February 2015

Augusta Raurica - Tour of Ancient world

Alternate name     Colonia Augusta Rauracorum
Location     Augst, Basel-Landschaft, Switzerland
Region     Germania Superior
Coordinates     47°32′2″N 7°43′17″ECoordinates: 47°32′2″N 7°43′17″E
Type     Settlement History
Builder     Lucius Munatius Plancus
Founded     Around 44 BC
Abandoned     Around 260 AD
Periods     Roman Republic to Roman Empire



Augusta Raurica history
Augusta Raurica is a well-preserved Ancient Roman site near Basel in Switzerland. Founded in 15 BC, Augusta Raurica grew into a thriving colonia by the mid-first century with a population of over 20,000 people.

Amongst its sites, Augusta Raurica has a fifty-row theatre, the remains of several public and private buildings and a maze of underground Roman sewers connected to a main pump room.
Augusta Raurica also has an archaeological museum housing finds from the site including a collection of silver objects.

 The Roman theatre in Augusta Raurica

 A statue of Plancus, the city's founder, in the city hall of Basel, Switzerland.

 Gravestone from Cirencester for a civis Rauricus.

 Augusta Raurica around 240 AD

 Temple at Augusta Raurica

 Augusta Raurica and Vindonissa in the 4th century

 Forum at Augusta Raurica

 Castrum Rauracense

Basilica at Augusta Raurica
 
Silver treasure of Kaiseraugst

Tuesday, 17 February 2015

Asklepieion - Tour of Ancient world


Name:    Asklepieion
Continent:    EUROPE
Alt Name:    Asclepeion
Country:    Greece
Period:    Ancient Greece
Sub-Region:    -
Date:    1000BC - 501BC
City/Town:    Kos
Figure:     -
Resorts:    Kos, Marmari,


Asklepieion Photos.....








Asklepieion history......
Asklepieion, also known as Asclepeion, in Kos was an ancient Greek and Roman sacred centre of healing based on the teachings of Hippocrates.
It seems that there has been a healing sanctuary at the site of Asklepieion since prehistory, but the main ruins today are those of later sanctuaries. The most significant was dedicated to Asklepios, who was a deity of health.
Over time, Asklepieion became increasingly popular and visitors would travels from far and wide to experience its healing properties. Thus, the sanctuary was expanded.
Today, the pretty and relatively well-preserved ruins of Asklepieion are set over three levels and include several temples, some Roman baths, gateways and a banqueting hall.
It is worth noting that this is not the most easily accessible site for people with mobility issues. The terrain is quite steep and there are many stairs to climb.

Asklepieion Tour......


Sunday, 15 February 2015

Aquincum - Tour of Ancient world


Name:    Aquincum
Continent:    EUROPE
Alt Name:     -
Country:    Hungary
Period:    Ancient Rome
Sub-Region:    -
Date:    100AD - 199AD
City/Town:    Budapest
Figure:     -
Resorts:    Budapest, 


Photos....






Aquincum History....

 Aquincum is a large Ancient Roman site in Budapest housing the remains of part of what was an important military base and city. Most of the sites at Aquincum date back to the second century AD, when the city reached its peak with up to 40,000 inhabitants and as the capital of the province of Pannonia, later Lower Pannonia.
Today, the site of Aquincum has much to offer sightseers and history enthusiasts alike, including the ruins of a city wall, an amphitheatre (one of two in Budapest), temples, homes and burial grounds.
There is also the modest Aquincum Museum housing some artifacts from the site, although the English translations could be improved.


Aquincum was an ancient city, situated on the northeastern borders of the Pannonia province within the Roman Empire. The ruins of the city can be found today in Budapest, the capital city of Hungary. It is believed that Marcus Aurelius may have written at least part of his book Meditations at Aquincum.
It was originally settled by the Eravisci, a Celtic tribe, with the name of Ak-ink. Aquincum served as a military base (castrum), having been part of the Roman border protection system called limes. Around AD 41-54, a 500-strong cavalry unit arrived, and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. The city gradually grew around the fortress, and after Pannonia was reorganised by the Romans in AD 106, Aquincum became the capital city of Pannonia Inferior. The city had around 30,000 to 40,000 inhabitants by the end of the 2nd century, and covered a significant part of the area today known as the Óbuda district within Budapest. Ruins from the old Roman settlement can be seen in other parts of Budapest as well, notably Contra-Aquincum. These Roman structures were, during the 2nd and 3rd century AD, the heart of the commercial life of the Pannonia province. The excavations show evidence of the lifestyle of this period. The most important monuments in Aquincum are the two amphitheaters the Aquincum Civil Amphitheatre and the Aquincum Military Amphitheatre built in the 1st century AD.

 

Friday, 13 February 2015

Apamea - Tour of Ancient world


Name:    Apamea
Continent:    MIDDLE-EAST
Alt Name:    Afamia
Country:    Syria
Period:    Ancient Rome
Sub-Region:    -
Date:    0AD - 99AD
City/Town:    Qalaat Al Madiq
Figure:     -
Resorts:    Qalaat Al Madiq, 


Apamea Photos....









 Apamea History....
Apamea (Afamia) is an ancient site in Syria which boasts a remarkable 1800 metres of dramatic Roman colonnades together with a range of other ruins.
Said to have been one of the largest Seleucid cities and built in around the 4th century BC in what is now Syria, Apamea flourished and thrived as a commercial hub. Indeed, at its peak under the Romans it had a population of some 117,000 people.
Today, Apamea is an incredible site. Most of the remains are from the Roman period, but there are some fascinating finds from its time under the Seleucids including ruins of its defenses, much of which have been restored.



Tuesday, 10 February 2015

Anjar - Tour of Ancient world

Name:    Anjar
Continent:    MIDDLE-EAST
Alt Name:     -
Country:    Lebanon
Period:    Umayyad Caliphate
Sub-Region:    -
Date:    700AD - 799AD
City/Town:    Majdel Aanjar
Figure:     -
Resorts:    Majdel Aanjar,

Anjar Photos...







Anjar History...
Anjar was a city of the Umayyad Islamic dynasty, founded in the early 8th century by Caliph Walid I. Over the course of this century, Anjar’s setting at the centre of two trading routes allowed it to flourish into a commercial hub. Yet, in 744AD, this prosperity came to an end when Walid’s son, Caliph Ibrahim, suffered a defeat.
Following this, Anjar was damaged and subsequently abandoned. Yet, it is this short history which makes Anjar such an important site. For, every aspect of what remains of this once great trading city - it’s carefully planned layout, the large arches and colonnades of the palaces which once stood there, the ruins of its 600 shops and its great fortifications - can all be dated precisely to the Umayyad period as this city rose and declined under its rule. In fact, Anjar was never actually completed.
Today, Anjar is an archaeological site listed by UNESCO, especially for being such an excellent example of Umayyad architecture.


Anjar History Video Tour...


Tuesday, 3 February 2015

Angkor Wat - Tour of Ancient world

Name:    Angkor Wat
Continent:    ASIA
Alt Name:    Angkor Vat
Country:    Cambodia
Period:    High Medieval (1000AD–1300AD)
Sub-Region:    -
Date:    1100AD - 1199AD
City/Town:    Siemreab
Figure:     -
Resorts:    Siemreab, Batdambang,
Related:    Preah Vihear Temple,


Angkor Wat Photos...











Angkor Wat history.....
Angkor Wat is an enormous 12th century temple complex in Cambodia and the best preserved of its kind.
Incredibly grand and ornately decorated, Angkor Wat’s sand-coloured buildings rise up to form five towers, representing the home of the Hindu deities. Friezes and sculptures are found throughout, depicting both day-to-day life from the time it was built and religious events.
Whilst the complex in Angkor is believed to have been founded circa 980 AD by Yasovarman I, king of the Khmer Dynasty, Angkor Wat itself is thought to date back to the twelfth century.
It was the Khmer king Suryavarman II who built Angkor Wat between 1113 and 1150. He dedicated it to the Hindu deity Vishnu and there are images of Suryavarman as Vishnu throughout Angkor Wat in the form of sculptures. It is also thought that Angkor Wat was the site of Suryavarman’s tomb.
Invaded by Thai raiders in 1431, Angkor and its temple then laid undiscovered until the 19th century.
Today Angkor Wat is one of Cambodia’s most popular tourist sites. There is an incredible amount to see and it’s a good (although relatively expensive) idea to get a licensed tour guide.
Angkor Wat has been a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1992.
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